Cesare Rossi's Ancient Engineers' Inventions - Precursors of the Present PDF

By Cesare Rossi

This e-book describes innovations and designs of historic engineers which are the precursors of the current. The a long time regularly diversity from three hundred B.C. to 1600 A.D. with a few exceptions from ahead of and after this era. As for the very historic ones, the e-book describes innovations (documented by means of archaeological reveals usually from Pompei, Ercolano and Stabia) that usually are little or no identified and infrequently no longer identified in any respect. a few innovations are within the army box. it's because (unfortunately) many innovations and technological ideas were conceived ranging from army functions. The booklet is split into 5 elements. the 1st 4 components pertain to convinced fields and current innovations more often than not conceived as much as the overdue Roman Empire. innovations which are consultant of the engineering genius of the ancients and that could be regarded as milestones, each one of their respective box. The 5th half refers to fields of engineering (such as textiles and automation) during which very important ideas have been conceived additionally in additional contemporary centuries. for every of the innovations provided, even the traditional ones of many centuries prior, the authors offer 3 components of analysis and reference: • Written files (the classics) • Iconic references (coins, bas-reliefs, etc.) • Archaeological findings.

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Using a decimal numeration, however, a figure’s value depends on the position it has in the number. The Roman abacus demonstrates that, for computing purposes, the Romans used decimal numeration. Moreover, the ninth slot of the abacus shows that also fractions were used during computations. It must also be observed that, by using Greek or Roman notations it was very difficult to obtain the product of two numbers. Suppose, for example, to compute: 15 × 31 = 465; in Roman notation it becomes: XV × XXXI = CCCCXLV.

This wheel’s gears mesh with the wheel B1 that has 225 teeth; the latter gives motion to all the other gears and shafts. As 225/45 = 5, it takes five crank turns for one turn of wheel B1; consequently to one turn of the crank should have corresponded 73 days. De Solla Price recognized 27 wheels; the main part of the gear train is constituted of about 20 wheels that represent an epicyclic gear train. One of the main functions is to make the fixed ratio 254/19 that represents the ratio of sidereal motion of the moon with respect to the sun.

In addition to the odometer, he was probably the inventor also of optical devices for distance measurement. The odometer by Heron is, without any doubt, the predecessor of the modern mechanical mileometer and tripmeter that has been used in modern motor vehicles till less than 10 years ago. Although it was designed about 200 years ago, it works with the same principles of modern tripmeters. This device was of great importance during the Roman Empire since it was used to locate milestones; this permitted planning of movements of army units and military costs.

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